The objective was to evaluate the homogeneous myoelectric activity of the maxillofacial area and to identify the myodynamic musculature balance in children of different ages with a physiological dental occlusion. Sixty children, 30 aged 7–9 years and 30 aged 10–12 years, with an Angle Class I relationship and who had no clinical symptoms, temporomandibular disorders, cross bite, deep bite or open bite, and were not bruxers underwent a surface electromyographic examination. The bioelectric potentials of the left and right temporalis, masseter, suprahyoid and sternocleidomastoid muscles were evaluated in maximum clenching. The electroactivity of the muscles measured with root mean square and average rectified value did not present statistically significant differences between the groups, even though different values in relation to age were found. Among the 7- to 9-year-olds, the root mean square index in maximum clenching for the masticatory muscles was 256.5 ± 9.0 μV on the right and 254.0 ± 7.3 μV on the left and for the suprahyoid muscles was 27.3 ± 3.2 μV and 31.6 ± 3.7 μV, respectively. In the group of 10- to 12-year-olds, the values were 374.8 ± 15.5 μV and 354.0 ± 16.4 μV, respectively, for the masticatory muscles and 23.4 ± 1.9 μV and 22.4 ± 2.1 μV, respectively, for the suprahyoid muscles. Any deviation from the values reported in the present study suggests the presence of occlusal and/or postural problems.
KeywordsClinical research protocol; clinical trial; randomized controlled trial; dental occlusion; stomatognathic system; masticatory system; orthodontics
An adequate hemostasis is of utmost importance for the success of apical surgery, because it not only improves operative visibility, but also provides a dry environment within the bony crypt, ideal for an adequate retrograde obturation. This article describes a new approach for the successful management of hemostasis during apical surgery through the use of autoclavable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) strips as an adjunct to epinephrine-impregnated gauze as the hemostatic material. The treatment protocol entailed the application of PTFE strips as an adjunct to epinephrine-impregnated gauze in the apical microsurgery approach, using mineral trioxide aggregate as retrograde obturation material and advanced platelet-rich fibrin plus (A-PRF+) membranes as filling material of the bony crypt. Asynergistic effect of the application of PTFE strips adjunct to epinephrine- impregnated gauze was found, yielding good intraoperative visualization and hemostasis. PTFE strips work as a mechanical barrier, and the material is easily adapted to the bony crypt size and feature by compression. Moreover, PTFE strips are easy to remove without leaving residues that may impair healing. PTFE strips and epinephrine-impregnated gauze demonstrated a good synergistic effect on hemostasis. PTFE strips are a simple, innocuous and cheap means of enhancing bleeding control during apical surgery.
KeywordsApical surgery; PTFE; hemostatic agent; oral surgery; advanced plateletrich fibrin plus.